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More recently, seismologists have been able to create detailed images of wave speeds inside the earth in the same way a doctor images a body in a CT scan.These images have led to a much more detailed view of the interior of the Earth, and have replaced the simplified layered model with a much more dynamic model.This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics.In this diagram, subducting slabs are in blue and continental margins and a few plate boundaries are in red.) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars or the Moon).
Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth's past climates.
The blue blob in the cutaway section is the seismically imaged Farallon Plate, which is subducting beneath North America.
The remnants of this plate on the surface of the Earth are the Juan de Fuca Plate and Explorer Plate, both in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada, and the Cocos Plate on the west coast of Mexico.
Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.
Seismologists can use the arrival times of seismic waves in reverse to image the interior of the Earth.
When a rock crystallizes from melt (magma or lava), it is an igneous rock.